If we’re getting really specific, Boston dates all the way back to Lincolnshire, where an orthodox saint named Botolph founded a monastery. This town was consequently named Botolphston, either because it was originally Botolph’s Town or Botolph’s Stone. From there, the Englanders shortened the name so that ultimately, they got Boston.
Herein lies a contradiction between tradition and evidence — some say Boston, Lincolnshire was not the home of Botolph’s monastery, and the name was derived from a small Saxon village years after Botolph’s time in the 10th century. Either way, when the settlers of modern day Boston, Massachusetts came over, John Winthrop and his band of Puritans based the name off of their home city back in England.
Queue the settlers in Massachusetts, who at this point began to turn Boston into a nonconformist city and then start relocate all over the state until, towards the end of the emigration period, England lost over 20,000 people to Massachusetts alone.